The research topic on: “the impact of guidance and counseling services in some selected secondary schools. The aim of guidance and counseling services in secondary schools is to assist students to understand themselves, their problems, and to be able to solve these problems without difficulties. Questionnaires were distributed and collected from respondents, the data and information collected were analyzed. Findings from the research showed that: The impact of guidance and counseling services in some selected secondary schools in the Doka area.

1.   The problems affecting guidance and counseling services in the schools.

2.   The attitudes of students towards guidance counselors.

3.   The attitudes of parents towards their children’s career choices


Title of Research

Approval Page




Table of Contents


1.1   Introduction                                                                     1

1.2   Statement of the Problem                                               

1.3   Significance of the Study                                                

1.4   Delimitation                                                                    

1.5   Definition of Terms                                                         

1.6   Hypothesis                                                                      


2.0   Literature Review                                                            

2.1   Definition of Science                                                               


3.0   Research Methodology                                                     21

3.1   Design                                                                      

3.2   The Sample                                                                     

3.3   The Instrument                                                                       

3.4   Data Collection                                                                       

3.5   Analysis of Data                                                              

3.6   Validity of Instrument                                                     


4.1   Data Analysis                                                                  


5.1   Summary                                                                        

5.2   Conclusion                                                                     

5.3   Recommendations                                                          


4.      Questionnaire




Formal guidance began in Nigeria towards the end of 1959. Guidance and counseling service was introduced in Kaduna state in 1983 following the directives from the federal ministry of education quoted in the new national policy on education.

The primary objective of guidance and counseling in secondary school is to assist students in choosing a career; selection of subjective, proper placement, and good study habits. The researcher has noticed that student’s behaviors such as poop combination of subjects, lack of seriousness in studies, and drug abuse may lead to inappropriate choice of career. Due to these problems, there should be a proper orientation on guidance and counseling to the junior secondary school (JSSIII) and senior secondary (SSI) students.

The aim of this study is to find out if guidance and counseling service are yielding any impact on the student's behavior.

Over the years, many researchers and authors including professional bodies, world organizations, and government agencies have spoken on the need for guidance and counseling service in schools.

Oladele (1987), Kalu (1992), Umom (1998), Abdulkareem (2001), Dikko (2001), Ekoji, and Ekoja (2001) pinpointed the place and importance of guidance programmes in the Nigeria school system.

The Executive Secretary of the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) Dr. Nuhu A. Yakabu sometime ago stated that: “there should be a provision of guidance and counseling in secondary school level.

Yakubu (2002) opined that “every post-primary school should have a guidance and counseling department which should organize career talks from time to time at which distinguished professional would be invited as resource persons”.

The united nations organization (UNO) had accepted the observation of the united nations educational, scientific and cultural organization’s (UNESCO) report on the need for organized guidance services at the secondary school level which states that: “African governments should perhaps consider providing more defined guidance for secondary school pupils in the light of their economic, social and cultural needs. Stronger guidance than in Europe will more reasonable in Africa because many families are scarcely capable of reaching well-informed decisions and about the future of their children”. UNESCO 1962.


The aim of guidance and counseling services in secondary schools is to assist students to understand themselves, their problems, and to be able to solve these problems without difficulties.

An observation has been made by the researcher that in spite of the guidance and counseling in secondary schools in the Doka area some students still drop out of school and some have a nonchalant attitude toward their studies; others engage in drug abuse and juvenile delinquencies. This has been a major concern to the researcher and hence the decision to write this project so as to find out if really guidance and counseling services have the mush desired and expected impacts on the students.


The purpose of the study is to identify:

5.      The impact of guidance and counseling services in some selected secondary schools in the Doka area.

6.      The problems affecting guidance and counseling services in the schools.

7.      The attitudes of students towards guidance counselors.

8.      The attitudes of parents towards their children’s career choices


The following research question will guide this study:

1.     Does the socio-economic background of parents at times make some parents impose pressure on their wards early in life in terms of career choice?

2.     Do peer groups have any influence on students towards nonchalant attitude to studies?

3.     what is the relationship between the students and the guidance and counseling teacher?

4.     what is the degree of students' exposure to guidance and counseling services in some selected schools in the Doka area?


Just like in the case of a bread baker who must follow some steps in baking bread, so is the case of a counselor who must follow a process in order to solve the problem of a client.

By going through the works of authors such as Nwoje (1987), Peterson and Nisenholz (1991), and Okobiah (1992), there seem to be similarities and differences in their opinions. The counseling process according to Okobiah has four stages which are as follow:

1.     Interviewing Stage: This stage is also known as the familiarization, orientation, or introductory stage. The counselor and the client meet for the first time. The counselor inquires about the client’s name, class, parents, friends, progress in school, and his mission to the counselor’s office.

2.     Working Stage: This is the stage the counselor fully engages the client in a discussion about what to do and how it will be done concerning the problem of the client. Here the counselor uses different techniques to diagnose the problem.

3.     Terminator Stage: This means bringing anend to the counseling relationship between the counselor and the client. The termination could be due to the following reasons: counseling goals have been achieved uncooperative attitude from the client, the client may decide not to continue, referral to an expert or death of counselor or client.

4.     The fourth stage is the follow upstage. This is the stage the counselor will want to know what is happening to the client after termination.

These stages in the theoretical framework are relevant to the work at hand because it will help the researcher to know how the counselor will draw out the problem from the client and the kind of solution he will proffer.


This study is most significant to students, teachers, parents and the society at large as its importance can not be overemphasized. Students will benefit from this study if guidance and counseling teacher actually play their role by helping in understanding their personal social and academic problems and how to go about solving them.

The aim of formal education is to shape the behavior of an individual.

That is bringing about some desirable changes in the student's behaviors.

Teachers will benefit from the study if the government will play its role in funding guidance and counseling programme and administrators properly manage the money. This incentive would boost the teacher’s morale and they will produce quality students through effective teaching and counseling.

Parents and society at large will benefit because they will produce competent and responsible individuals.

This study will help in making students have good subject combination and help to fulfill their career. The rate of drug abuse and addiction among students will be reduc


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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