This research work is on the Verb phrase of Kuturmi. Kuturmi is one of the languages spoken in Kaduna State. It is spoken in Awon and Arikwo. It has two dialect, Inuwa and Umsuwe which is used in Arikwo and Inuwa is been used in Awon (district head quarter) Umsuwe is the majority while Inuwa is the minority.

In this chapter, we shall discuss the historical background, Geographical location and  Socio-linguistics profile of Kuturmi speakers, the genetic classification of Kuturmi language, Scope and organization of the study, Justification of the study, Methodology, Data collection, Data Analysis and the Theoretical frame work.


Kuturmi land is situated geographically between latitude 9-5 degree North and 10 degree north and longitude 7.5 degree East and 8.0 degree east. The region lies to the Western part of Kachia district headquarters. The region is bounded by the river guinea to the East and South and to the North and West by the Kadara tribe. It is about 12km from Kachia town.

The vegetation of this Area falls under the guinea savannah type with prominent feature of fall grasses called elephant grass.Among the natural resources of the region are timber, palm produce, trees and some agricultural products such as ginger, maize, millet, yam, cassava and a host of others.


The history of Kuturmi people was associated with migration. There exists two sources of the Kuturmi Origin. One traditional source holds that the Kutumbawa people captured Kanu empire in the year A.D. 499. Bagauda was said to be a grandson of Bayajidda the snake killer of Daura.

The second source which is the Katsina fable, simly puts it that the Kuturmi people migrated to their present settlement from Kano city in 1807 (Burdon 1969).

The Kutumbawa people were nicknamed after their occupation “Mortar carving” by their neighbour the word “Mortar” is Turimi in Hausa, But they later moved from Kano and by-passed Zaria to the north and Kauru to South and settled at a village called Kallah in Kajuru district of Kajuru Local Government Area.



Culture is a shared learned symbolic of values, beliefs and attitude that shape and influence perception and behaviour. In Kuturmi land their culture respect the fact that females should not wear trouser while males should not wear skirts. Their belief is that men should not wear women clothing while women should also not wear men’s clothing. Also the longitudinal tribal mark on their cheeks is an identity to describe the Kutumbawa people.


The Religion in Kuturmi land before Christianity was around just like other Nigerian community was essentially traditional, but now they have three religions namely: Traditional, Christianity and Islam. TRADITION

This religion embraces a number of beliefs and practices among which he belief in the supernatural, who is believed to be the architect of their lives. In this practice, there is the belief of several spirits those that posses powers above those of ordinary human beings and the constitute power of their own and live as human beings live, they are commonly known as “Ushara” and they live in various places like rivers, trees, forest and mountains. CHRISTIANITY

To the Kuturmi’s God is the creator and controller who have the final authority over the universe. He (God) is known by the name “UCHE” that is the Supreme Being. In this Religion, the idea of God is fundamental. They believed in the existence of the supreme being. The lord of the universe and its creator.

To them he is the author of all things and the God of all gods “UCHE” is represented by the Kuturmi’s as being too holy to be approached directly, and so they have devised other means of approaching him through prayers. In this religion the people serving God are known as the Christians and goes to church every Sunday to worship and adore him. ISLAM

In Kuturmi land, there are no many Muslims in the land, they are not more than 10-20 people in this religion, they also have their own way of praying or approaching their God, they pray at intervals while on Fridays mainly, they go to the mosque for their worship service.


There also exist some festivals in Awon, these include, harvest festivals, masquerade festival and installation of chiefs among others. The harvest festival comes up whenever new “Accha” (hungry rice) is around, they celebrate it while the chiefs will pray on it and take it first before any other person can take it.


Marriages in this community were in the olden days the responsibility of the parents. The parent chooses wives for their son’s right from the day female child is born. The father or the mother simply ties a small rope around the leg of the baby indicating his or her willingness to marry her to his or her son, from that time gift of food stuff will be taken to the girls parent at the end of every farming season until she grows for marriage age when dowry will be taken to her parents. The dowry is usually a hen and a pot of local wine (burukutu) the culture has since given way to the modern methods of marriage as practice use were in the northern part of the country.


Kuturmi people lives in traditional mud houses, the houses which was formerly circular in shapes with thatch roofs had gradually given way to the modern rectangular houses with corrugated iron sheets. The houses built in clusters belonging to an extended family. Families were divided or distinguished along the clandestine lines. The clans were named after occupations or social status of family like Arikpan (The warriors) ‘Arigumo’ (The ruling clan) ‘Arikma’ (The blacksmith) and Aritaworo.  OCCUPATION

Kuturmi people’s occupation is majorly farming, they in addition to farming practiced mortar carving and blacksmith hunting and fishing are practices to their dishes, farming is carried out in sessions beginning with yam, cocoyam, hungry rice, guinea corn and millet.

Today, Kuturmi’s food crops are in commercial quantity for sale to the outside communities. FOOD

The food eaten majorly by this people (Kuturmi) is ‘Tuwo and Kalkash soup (okro) they use Accha in making their Tuwo this days, but before it was guinea corn they use in making their Tuwo. DRESS

Kuturmi women dress in ‘Ture’ a piece of cloth of about 1.5 meter long and two inches wide tied around the waist and upper part of their body (covering the essential part of them. The young girls use leaves while the men dress in animal skin which covers just the waist covering their private part. This tradition has since given to modern way of dressing. The men now dresses simply but occasionally uses flowing gowns on festivals and Sundays while their women folks wear wrappers and blouses with head tie to march.


It (Kuturmi) is a language of the home, it is not in use in the educational system, but it is used for communication in the home. While Hausa is the Language of Education together with English Language. The orthography used in writing Kuturmi is the Greek-Roman Orthography and not Hausa Orthography.

The relationship between Hausa and Kuturmi is that, both Hausa and Kuturmi are been used concurrently, Kuturmi borrowed more of Hausa sounds. In a nutshell we can say Kuturmi is endangered because Hausa language has dominated it.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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