ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AS A TOOL FOR MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING

ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AS A TOOL FOR MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Accounting is fundamentally a measurement and communication process used to report on the activity of profit and non-profit seeking organizations. In other words, it is concerned with the discipline of summarizing, recording, analysing and interpreting economic events and other financial activities. This process is performed by accountants who furnish management with the relevant information needed for effective and efficient decision making as to contribute to the quest for means of surmounting industrial, commercial, governmental and academic problems inherent in a dynamic and volatile socio-economic and political setting. The chambers 20th century dictionary defines information as “intelligence given-knowledge”. This is because reliable information is necessary before a sound decision involving the allocation of scarce resource (land, labour and capital) can be made, that is why accounting profession is dynamic and there is always the need for an accountant to continually update his/her knowledge of accounting portfolio. Accounting information is valuable because it can be used to predict the financial consequences of each alternative course of action. An organization needs quantitative information to function or make decision. Management uses the best available information system to

provide management information which is used primarily to accomplish three broad purposes;

(i)                To provide financial statement to the interest of external users,

(ii)             To plan the organization activities and operations in both short and long run, and

(iii)           To control the result of its operations.

The American Accounting Association (1966) also defined accounting as “the process of identifying, measuring, and communicating economic information to permit informed judgements and decisions by users of the information”. Another definition, which is widely accepted, is by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (1970) defined accounting as “the art of recording, classifying and summarizing an event which is in part at least of a financial character and interpreting the result thereof”.

The above definition place emphasis on the use of accounting information for evaluating the results of the past and present activities and making decisions concerning future actions. The information is primarily financial and generally stated in monetary terms. It is the process by which the profitability and solvency of an organization can be measured and also periodic information needed as a basis for making business decision and appropriate control that will enable the management to guide the organisation on a profitable and solvent

course. The accounting information is prepared and presented in form of financial statement in accordance with the accounting standard issued by the Nigerian Accounting Standard Board Act (2003) which are the means of conveying to management and interested outsiders a concise picture of the profitability and financial position of the business. The form of preparing and presenting accounting information includes the following; the profit and loss account, balance sheet, income statement etc.

Hence, accounting is divided into three (3), namely;

(i)                Financial accounting

(ii)             Cost accounting, and

(iii)           Management accounting

According to Leopold (1982), he said that, financial accounting “is concerned with providing information on the financial activities of the organization for the benefit of both internal and external users”. It is also the classification, recording of monetary transaction of an entity in accordance with establish concepts, principles, accounting standard and legal requirement  and presentation of a view of those translations during and at the end of an accounting period.

While cost accounting on the other hand produce information about cost that are incurred by organization in running the organization so as to achieve the objectives on which it is set up.

Finally, Calvin (1982), stated that management accounting “is concerned with providing information to management for the purpose of planning or provision of information needed at all levels”. Management and creditors use these reports internally.

Stamford (1978) stated that accounting information has played a role as “a tool for management decision making” because it function as “a historical record of contractual obligations between the outsiders with the end product in form of financial statements to report the financial status of an organization at a point in time”.

However, the relevance of accounting information to effective management decision making in many organisation is still not appreciated but with the test to be conducted in this research, the degree of accounting information as a “tool for management decision making” shall be clearly understood.

               STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Management who takes wrong decision always end up not achieving their set goals and objectives. Many managers who think that they can operate successfully without the use of information provided by their accountants, leads

to economic failure such as liquidation of many banks. So, effective decision or management decision cannot be taken by managers if the information provided by their accountants is not properly adhered to. Accounting information answer questions such as;

(i)                         Arethedisclosuresof accounting information accurate and reliable?

(ii)                   Is accounting information prepared with General Accepted Accounting Principle (GAAP)?

(iii)           Does accounting information as a tool for decision making satisfy the management?

               AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The purpose of this study is to establish the relevancy of accounting information as a tool for management decision-making.

The subsidiary objectives of this study are;

(i)                        The basic issues of how the accounting information systems are used to perform the generally recognised financial and management function in First Bank Nigeria Limited, Abdullahi Fodio Road Branch, Sokoto.

(ii)                     To carefully look at the need for accounting information for management decision-making.

(iii)           To make suggestions as to the usefulness of accounting information to the users in general.

(iv)             The research seeks to know the extent to which the management of the organisation under review have used the accounting information.

               SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study is aimed at establishing whether there is any correlation between the accounting information provided by the account department (accountants) and the decision made thereof by the users of the information, most importantly management of First Bank of Nigeria LimitedAbdullahi Fodio Road Branch, Sokoto.

These groups will benefit from the research namely;

(i)                       The organization under study

(ii)                       Business Managers

(iii)           Future researchers, and

(iv)           The researcher personally.

(i)      THE ORGANISATION UNDER STUDY

The management of the organisation (Bank) will use the research where applicable as a tool for formulating policies for the firm as a standard of

evaluating accounting information and control of their accounts department through financial decision.

(ii)   BUSINESS MANAGERS

The work will also go a long way to educate managers on the relevance of a sound accounting information in decision-making process of their organisation and subsequently on its growth.

(iii) FUTURE RESEARCHERS

The work will serve as a source of secondary data to future researchers who intend to carry out further research work on “accounting information as a tool for management decision making” or any related topic. It will also help students in the accounting department to have in-depth knowledge of the practical application of accounting information.

(iv) THE RESEARCHER PERSONALLY

The research will enable us imbibe thorough knowledge of the uses of accounting information as a tool for management decision making. It will also give foresight on the applicability of accounting information on the Management of the Bank.

               RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Abubakar (2004) said, “Hypothesis is a theoretical conceptualization or guess about how the researcher thinks the result should look like or as statement that was usually linked to the theory being treated and it was tested in a testable form to predict the relationship between two variables”.

For the purpose of this study, the following hypothesis was available for testing;

Ho – There is no statistically significant difference in the respondent size  among those who accept that accounting information are not tools for management decision making.

H1 – There is a statistically significant difference in the respondent size among those who accept that accounting information are tools for management decision making.

               SCOPE OF STUDY

The research work will cover certain aspect of accounting systems operational in First Bank of Nigeria Plc (as a case study of Abdullahi Fodio Road Branch, Sokoto and types of reports prepared for decision making. The relationship that exist between accounting information and management decision making will be examined and some related literatures in the field of the study will be reviewed and incorporated.

The study will also be limited to the importance of each branch of accounting and the type of information they prepare, usefulness of each of the information prepared by individual segment of the branches of accounting, examples financial accounting section, management accounting section and cost accounting section.

               LIMITATION

The project is limited by many factors which posed as snags or obstacles to the smooth compilation of the work. It is important that users of the work note the limitations in the course of carrying out the work. The significant problems faced include the following;

ECONOMIC TREND

The global economic meltdown, which apparently affected the Nigerian economy ate deep into the Banking sector of the economy destroying the shares value of all financial institutions in the Country and resulted in poor performance. This has a psychological impact on the respondents.

FINANCE

The economic turndown coupled with inflation has increasingly raised the cost of materials. This led to the devaluation of Naira affecting every aspect of the Nigerian economy. The impact of this on the study is enormous limiting visits to the respondents and qualitative materials for carrying the study.

TIME

Time is another limiting factor which acted as a snag to the completion of the project, though lengthy period was given for the submission of the work but considering the academic pressure coupled with the writing of the project made things not too really easy for the research.

NON-DISCLOSURE

There are some vital as well as important information which the Bank refused to disclose for security reasons. Incomplete and lack of availability of records, which was considered to be very useful, were referred to as confidential.

However, time and financial constraints are the most impactful limitation to the study. Finally, despite all limitations and constraints, the research contained the necessary relevant resource material and to- date data obtained, analysed and provided in the work.

               TERMINOLOGY

Accounting

This is the process of identifying, measuring and communicating economic information to permit informed judgements and decisions by users of the information.

Information

This is a complete set of processed data that has a meaning.

Accounting information

These are processed data used by an organization to make financial decision.

Financial Accounting

It is the process of collecting, classifying, recording, summarizing and communicating data in respect of event, which can be expressed in terms of money for the purpose of making decisions.

Accountant

This is a professional whose job is to prepare and keep the books of account of an organization.

Management Accounting

This is a process of allocating resources by planning, organizing, controlling and directing for the purpose of producing desired output.

Management

This means a group of decision makers or managers in an organization who see to the smooth running of the affairs of the business.

Assets

These are the economic resources of the business that can usefully be expressed in monetary terms. Assets may be in form of land, building and equipment which have readily identifiable physical features.

Liabilities

These are the debts or obligations of the company in which the company must pay in money or services at some time in future. They therefore, represent creditors’ claims on the firm’s assets.

Balance sheet

This is a financial statement that shows the financial position of a firm at a specific date, usually at the close of the last day in the month of an accounting period. It represents the listing of a firm’s assets, liabilities and owner’s equity on a given date.

                        HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF CASE STUDY (FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC)

First Bank of Nigeria Limited remains one of Africa’s most diversified financial services solution providers. Since its establishment in 1894, the Bank has consistently met growing market demands for financial services, through a process of continuous re-intervention. Its current customer-centred architecture combines service delivery through the traditional branch outlet and emphasis on person-to-person contact, with the ease of the automated delivery channel, to create a customer-service experience that is strong on choice, convenience and mass customisation. In the over one Century since its establishment, the Bank has continued to build relationships with its customers and alliances with key sectors of the economy that have been strategic to the well-being and growth of the Nigerian economy.

First Bank has been through many seasons since 1894, worthy of mention is, the Bank got listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) in march 1971 and in 2005 the Bank acquired two Banks- MBC International Bank Ltd and FBN (Merchant Bankers) Ltd in the then Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Bank

reforms policy (Bank Consolidation of N25 billion Capital base). With over 520 First Bank locations and over 1000 First Bank ATM’s nationwide, the Bank is said to be all over Nigeria.

The total assets and contingencies f the Bank as at March 31, 2014 stood at 2,982,395 million naira and the shareholders’ funds grew from 339,847 million naira in 401,054 million naira in 2014.

In addition, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) also embarked on automation of all the activities including the clearing system. With these avenues, financial interventions were few and highly competitive resulting in general margin for First Bank Nigeria Plc. These make First Bank of Nigeria Limited market to be active. The gross earnings rose, an impressive increase of 53.80% from 2013 to 2015 and profitability also improved as Profit Before tax (PBT) rose by 33.28% from 2013 to 2014 and Profit attributable to ordinary shareholders increased by 19.10% during same period under review.

Against the emerging Nigerian economy in the context of increasing globalization and increasing competition in the Banking industry the prospect of First Bank Nigeria Limited looks bright. The Bank is responding through efforts towards charting a strategic direction that will reposition the institution to be twice the size of the number two Banks in the country in terms of financial services delivery and other key indices in the industry.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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